This document may be a source of information for medical doctors about the work of their fellow professionals who dedicated their lives to researching the impact of negative ions on the human body, the results of their research and their potential useful application.
When the patients experience improved health conditions, they are welcome to modify their medical treatments accordingly, but always in cooperation with their doctors and based on medical tests. If the tests show a health improvement, they should inform their doctors about regularly performing negative ion therapy and follow the doctors’ instructions on how to adapt their future treatment accordingly – i.e. reduce the use of medicines or even abolish them altogether.
Table of Contents
Air ionization has been known and studied for many decades. Through period, various benefits of negative ions on humans, plants and animals have been proven.
Ions are electrically charged particles (positive and negative), floating in the atmosphere. In nature, they are created and influenced by cosmic and ultraviolet rays, X and gamma rays, radioactive emissions, weather phenomena (winds, storms, lightning), lunar phases and even breakup of water drops (spray electrification or Lenard effect). The friction between air and water is another source of negative ions, resulting in a healthy atmosphere on beaches, around water sources and waterfalls and after sudden rainfalls. In nature, millions of negative ions are being produced all the time and they clear from the air the pollution coming from chimneys and transport vehicles.
Molecules, components of any solid, gaseous or liquid substance, are made of atoms. every atom consists of even smaller electrically charged parts: a tiny nucleus (proton) surrounded by moving electrons. Under normal circumstances atoms are electrically neutral, as the total negative charge of electrons is neutralised by the positive charge of the nucleus. However, a certain force or energy can act on the atom and knock the electron out of the orbit, thus creating a negative ion in the atmosphere.
Negative ions can be created in nature or artificially by negative ion generators, also named air ionizers.
Below is a table, comparing concentrations of negative ions/cm3 in various areas in nature. In places, where negative ion levels are high, we feel the most comfortable, relaxed and invigorous.
Negative ions enter in the human body in two ways:
- with breathing (every day, human lungs inhale around 10,000 litres of air as well as 10 to 20 billion of ions of both charge signs)
- through dendrites under the skin, which function as receivers and seem to coincide with the micro areas used in acupuncture.
After entering the body, negative ions participate in complex biological processes that are being discovered and explained by science and described in the following passages.
The distribution of positive and negative electrical charge may determine the health, growth and work capacity of living beings.
By virtue of negative ion generation, technology now allows us to repeat the physical process that produces negative ions in nature by altering the voltage of magnetic fields, which results in healthy and bioelectrically sound areas like those found in mountains or by the sea. Using indoor ionization, the following is possible in practice:
- improving the atmosphere by removing pollution present;
- preventing the air from becoming polluted through preventive action;
- restoring the electric and bioclimatic indoor balance on the basis of a sufficient residual anionic charge, such as in open and unpolluted areas;
- finally, the considerable bacteriological impact of ionization must not be ignored, because it enables control of the total microbial charge, which significantly reduces the possibility of an infection, especially one resulting from airborne bacteria.
When animals and plants dwell in rooms poor of negative ions, they fall ill or even die in a total absence of negative ions, no matter to what extent the air in such rooms is clean or oxygenated. Mice and rabbits kept in such rooms die in several days. Humans would live longer, but gradually lose control of their muscles as was the case with the first astronauts (who suffered from muscle cramps) since early space shuttles were not equipped with ionizers. Many scientists described the beneficial and healing impact of negative ions on the human body without any adverse effects. See the table below:
As it has been concluded from scientific studies, negative ions remove pathogenic microorganisms from the air and prevent us from infectious diseases, spreading through the air. This is very good news for Infectious Disease Clinics or wards, treating highly-contageous patients or for hospitals having problems with spread of air-transmitted diseases among patients or staff.
Besides this, negative ions have been proven to protect medical equipment from getting infected. Third reason is, negative ions have been proven to help people with pulmonary diseases to heal better and faster. The so called negative ion therapy has no unwanted side effects and can lead to significant improvement in tissue oxygenation, easier breathing, mucus secretion, opening up the airways, lowering histamine, balancing blood pressure and heart rate, among other beneficial effects – studies about impact on health are presented in more details in chapter ‘Studies from 20th century’.
One of the largest studies was made at The Faculty of Biology and Human Health in Surrey which studied the effects of ionization on a sample of one thousand people who used an ionizer over a longer period of time. The results in the table below indicate the percentage of people suffering from various diseases who experienced improvement after regularly performing negative ion therapy for a longer time.
Table 1: The percentage of people who experienced improvement after negative ion therapy
It is therefore recommended to increase the use of ionizers in public spaces, means of transport, offices, banks, industry, gyms, entertainment areas and cinemas, but most of all in hospitals and health care institutions, where the patients’ pathologies (cardiac and bronchial) and the stress of the doctors and the medical staff – especially those who work in enclosed areas such as diagnostic rooms and operating theatres, intensive care rooms and radiology departments – often compound an already unhealthy environment. For this purpose, we need to point out that ionizers have a major preventive and therapeutic role to play in hospital wards, not only in terms of the above but also on account of the positive benefits offered by the restored ionic balance with regard to bacterial and viral infections and postoperative complications (of the infectious, haemorrhagic or thrombotic type), as conclusively proven by Prof. Krueger in the U.S. and Prof. Ehe in Germany.
All of this leaves no doubt that ionizers are currently an extremely useful tool that will become essential in the future.
IONEX d.o.o. is the only organisation in Slovenia which carries out research in ionization and has dedicated more than 20 years to this subject. Lorena Leonardos, our founder and innovator, has developed several patents for car and room air ionizers as well as the prototype of air ionizer for installation in vehicles. She wrote the book Negative ions as a method of healing, consisting of medical studies from well-know institutes worldwide and the findings of our research.
Book is intended for all people with health problems and doctors who want to learn about negative ions for therapeutic purposes.
Compared to results from studies from the 20th century, we at IONEX company have experienced much better results with patients with allergies, asthma and hypertension. In studies, they achieved alleviation of symptoms, which lasted temporarily, while we achieved complete removal of symptoms and permanent results. This has been a ground-breaking achievement that caught the attention of patients’ doctors and other professionals, especially pulmonologists and general practitioners.
Our method recommends inhaling next to the carbon brush, which enables a large number of negative ions to enter the blood via the pulmonary alveoli (air cells of the lungs) and in this way reduce the level histamine. The carbon brush emits negative ions without the presence of ozone which is harmful. By repeating the procedure the disease can be even cured. Before being cured all the patients inhaled negative ions for several months in a row. On one hand, negative ions reduce the level of histamine which is higher in allergy and asthma patients; on the other hand, they increase immune defence, the combination of which helps to cure the disease. The patient’s pulmonologist, dr. Kambic Kafol, MD, was surprised and decided to try the ionizer herself.
There are two reasons:
- A much higher concentration of negative ions than in ionizers, used in past studies. ionizer has to be of good quality and capable of emitting a huge amount of negative ions. IONEX air ionizer has proven beneficial effects and produces the largest amount of negative ions of all available ionizers, as shown by measurements conducted at the Josef Stefan Institute.
- No ozone production – older ionizers that operated mostly on metal needles or plasma membrane/corona discharge, have produced also ozone, which is harmful to human lungs and should not be inhaled. In the past, negative ion therapies had to be limited to max. 30 minutes due to the damaging effect of ozone creation. By inventing the air ionization process that does not create any ozone due to unique carbon brush, negative ion therapy can be performed limitless, throughout the day and night. This is why we achieved so fast and so much more intensely good results.
We believe that in time ionization will become an ancillary therapeutic method, as there is evidence that negative ions have beneficial effects on:
- regulate heartbeat and blood pressure;
- regulate the functioning of all internal organs and glands;
- preserve cell vitality;
- the organism’s serotonin levels are maintained at normal values, resulting in the elimination of stress, anxiety, psychoneuroses, headaches, etc.
- enhanced resilience and faster recovery after exertion;
- better focus and greater concentration, resulting in a 75% decrease in mistakes;
- a 65% decrease in the occurrence of diseases, especially epidemic ones;
- a huge relief, particularly for people suffering from bronchial asthma and blocked airways;
- alleviated symptoms in people suffering from pollen allergies in 80% of cases (reduce the level of histamine in the case of hay fever, other allergies, asthma and bronchitis);
- reduce pain caused by migraines, wounds and burns;
- improved general wellbeing.
All the studies carried out so far indicate that a high percentage of negative ions is good for health. The studies have also shown that there are no side effects; in fact, they point out the normalising effects of negative ionization.
- Ionizing air affects influenza virus infectivity and prevents airborne-transmission: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4477231
- About coronavirus staying in the air for several hours: https://link.medium.com/dfnfVWXsx5
- Air ionisers wipe out hospital infections – New Scientist: https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3228-air-ionisers-wipe-out-hospital-infections
- Retroscreen Virology Research on Plasmacluster Technology: https://youtu.be/_G2FPfY2ylI
- Effect of negative air ions on the potential for bacterial contamination of plastic medical equipment: https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2334-10-92
- Use of Negative and Positive Ions for Reducing Bacterial Pathogens to Control Infections: https://actascientific.com/ASMI/pdf/ASMI-02-0395.pdf
- The Effects of Negative Ions and Ozone on Various Bacteria and The Evaluation of Their Use in Hospital Wastewater Disinfection: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332695331_The_Effects_of_Negative_Ions_and_Ozone_on_Various_Bacteria_and_The_Evaluation_of_Their_Use_in_Hospital_Wastewater_Disinfection
- Negative Air Ions and Their Effects on Human Health and Air Quality Improvement: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327950331_Negative_Air_Ions_and_Their_Effects_on_Human_Health_and_Air_Quality_Improvement
- Indoor and outdoor concentration of PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1 in residential building and evaluation of negative air ions (NAIs) in indoor PM removal: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339502988_Indoor_and_outdoor_concentration_of_PM_10_PM_25_and_PM_1_in_residential_building_and_evaluation_of_negative_air_ions_NAIs_in_indoor_PM_removal
- Effect of Negative Air Ionization on Airborne Transmission of Newcastle Disease Virus: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1592107?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents
- Evaluation of an electrostatic particle ionization technology for decreasing airborne pathogens in pigs: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10453-015-9413-3
- Effect of ionization on microbial air pollution in the dental clinic: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2351131
- Use of negative air ionization for reducing airborne levels of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in a room containing infected caged layers: http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201302943943
- Use of Negative Air Ionization for Reducing Bacterial Pathogens and Spores on Stainless Steel Surfaces: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/43291538_Use_of_Negative_Air_Ionization_for_Reducing_Bacterial_Pathogens_and_Spores_on_Stainless_Steel_Surfaces
- Removal of viable bioaerosol particles with a low-efficiency HVAC filter enhanced by continuous emission of unipolar air ions (=neg. Ions): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18333990
- Effectiveness of Negative Air Ionization in Removing Airborne Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV): https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Effectiveness-of-Negative-Air-Ionization-in-Porcine-La-Zhang/2a552029829a35e6f46160723cf0571b72683541#paper-header
- Effectiveness of negative air ionization for removing viral bioaerosols in an enclosed space: http://www.csbe-scgab.ca/docs/meetings/2017/CSBE17062.pdf
- Application of corona discharge-generated air ions for filtration of aerosolized virus and inactivation of filtered virus: https://yonsei.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/application-of-corona-discharge-generated-air-ions-for-filtration
- Upper-room ultraviolet light and negative air ionization to prevent tuberculosis transmission: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19296717
- Ionizing air affects influenza virus infectivity and prevents airborne-transmission: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep11431
- Bactericidal action of positive and negative ions in air: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17439657
- The application of ionizers in domestic refrigerators for reduction in airborne and surface bacteria: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19486210
- Effect of negative ions on viruses and other microorganisms (as a separate pdf attachment) – by Sharp
In his many studies, Prof. Isaac Barash from Tel-Aviv University proved that negative ions produced by an air ioniser considerably decrease the number of bacteria in the air. In 1977 he placed an ioniser just under the upper wall of a chamber made of corrugated cardboard (48 x 79 x 56 cm). Petri dishes were inserted and later taken out through two holes in the front wall, which were closed immediately afterwards. an identical chamber without an ioniser was used for control purposes.
He started the experiment by spraying 30 ml of a solution with bacteria (5 x 106 cells/ml) in each chamber. The solution included a mixture of four bacteria: Streptomyces sp., Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia Coli and Pseudomonas sp. Two hours later closed Petri dishes with potato dextrose agar were inserted in both chambers and opened for 15 minutes. The distance between the Petri dishes and the ioniser was 50 cm. Immediately after insertion, the ioniser was switched on in one of the chambers. The Petri dishes were replaced every 15 minutes with new ones, which made bacteria continually deposit on the agar medium. Finally, the Petri dishes were incubated for 24 hours at 370C and bacterial colonies were counted in ionised and control Petri dishes.
This procedure was repeated three times and every time the results were the same, as shown in the graph below.
As opposed to the control group, the number of bacterial cells ionised group significantly decreased in half an hour – at the end of the experiment (after 4 hours) only traces of bacteria were found. The total number of bacterial in the control group was 75,200 compared to 6,200 in the ionised group.
It is a known fact that the bioactivity of negative ions is catalytic in nature (a catalyst is a substance that alters a chemical reaction’s speed without being altered itself or becoming an integral part of the reaction’s product), which means it does not depend on the circulatory or the nervous system, as confirmed by research performed on cultures of bacteria and cells. Exposing Staphylococci suspensions to negative ionization halves the number of live bacteria within four to six hours. Similar effects were observed in the Neurospora crassa bacterium by Fuerst and Ball and in Penicillium notatum by Pratt and Bernard. Naturally, these results attracted the attention of the food industry, which began successfully using air ionization in vegetable storage areas in large shopping centres. Producing a sufficient number of negative ions in an apartment or workplace automatically reduces the number of bacteria. Firstly, bacteria form the core of the condensate that gets removed and secondly, they are given a lethal dose of electricity by the electrostatic charge. Although this does not disinfect the air 100%, the quantity of bacteria is greatly reduced, resulting in a much lower risk of infection as well.
According to studies by Professors Krueger and David, an increase in negative ions speeds up the tracheal ciliary beat rate, which is also known to have a protective effect against bacteria.
In 1960 Prof. Krueger, the leading pathologist and microbiologist at the Berkeley University, California, presented to the public another interesting effect of negative ions: on the production of the neurohormone serotonin, which was long ago discovered by Esparmer. Krueger found that positive ions promoted the release of serotonin and therewith tension, irritability and anxiety, whilst negative ions inhibited the production of serotonin and consequently had an opposite effect, meaning that similarly to tranquilisers they caused the sense of tranquillity and relaxation without secondary consequences.
In addition to promoting the absorption of oxygen, negative ions also acted as the regulators of the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, the inhalation of the air enriched with negative ions resulted in the recuperation of strength and tranquillity, or in other words the sense of real wellbeing. The adjectives positive and negative denote only the polarity of ions, but their effects are actually contrary to the meaning of the words: positive ions are in general harmful and negative ions are beneficial and therefore also termed “life-essential”.
In 1965 Prof. Krueger carried out a scientific experiment supported by the Us Central Office for Pollution and the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. The experiment was carried out on mice at different ion levels and in polluted air. After finding out that animals are more likely to contract influenza and their death rate is higher than when exposed to normal air, he connected that to the fact that for long periods of time people are exposed to the polluted air in which they are forced to live. They have to work in offices where there are very little negative ions, they have to commute to and from work in polluted air and rest in their urban dwellings where the micro-environment is practically the same as the one in which the mice inhaled negative-ion depleted air. Conclusion: living in the air poor of negative ions is a health hazard. Humans are able to adapt to changes in the environment (temperature, pressure, humidity), but they are unable to adapt to the life deprived of negative ions because without them they cannot absorb sufficient quantities of oxygen. After a working day spent in an ion-depleted atmosphere, a man or woman comes home in a bad mood and irritable, and under such circumstances, they are very unlikely to be sexually stimulated.
The experience gathered by the American scientist Krueger, who provided vitally needed ions to his subjects, met with the positive response of over 80% patients. Prof. Krueger claimed that negative ionization of hospitals and similar environments is of primary importance not only for patients as it facilitates breathing, functioning of the nervous system and functional balance but also because of its effect on bacteria, Staphylococci and viruses that are common in such environments and which under the influence of negative ions fall on the ground.
Prof. P. C. Boulatov is a Professor Emeritus and a noted Russian doctor, honorary professor, and Head of the Chair of Therapy at the First Leningrad I.P. Pavlov Medical Institute, Ussr (on 6 September 1991, Leningrad was renamed St. Petersburg).
Prof. Boulatov in Russia used negative ion therapy for three thousand asthma patients. About one half had suffered from asthma for over ten years.
Bronchial asthma is an allergic condition in which neurogenic factors play a large part. In this article, bronchial asthma is discussed in the context of neurotic problems. According to the teachings of I. P. Pavlov and s. P. Botkin, it can be seen that reflex mechanisms are basic to the development of this condition and that three mechanisms come together in the pathological course of bronchial asthma:
- Peripheral receptors that receive the irritating action and convey impulses via afferent nerves to the central system;
- Nervous centres that convey the stimulus to the centrifugal nerves;
- Efferent nerve conductors with ramifications in the tissues of the organs.
Clinical experience and other observations indicate that the system is sensitised by centres of infection with their seat in the respiratory system, by foreign tissue substances and by antigenic microbes. These substances are spread by the blood, inducing an allergic state in the bronchial muscles, the bronchial mucous glands, the pulmonary vessels and also the respiratory nerve system. These same toxic substances cause prolonged irritation of the interoceptors, the mucous membrane, the respiratory system itself and most often the bronchi. They irritate pathological interoceptor reflexes causing spasms in the sensitised bronchial muscles, promoting the secretory action of bronchial mucous glands and a change in the vascular system of the lungs. This is a typical picture of the disease.
On the basis of the unconditioned reflexes, conditioned exteroceptor reflexes can easily be induced. according to the researchers, they continue even when the unconditioned irritant that caused the complaint (the toxic centre of infection), is no longer present. The nervous centres controlling the bronchi, the smooth muscles, the mucous glands and their vessels are situated not only in the medulla oblongata and in the diencephalon but apparently also in the higher part of the brain, including the cerebral cortex.
During treatment, the negative ion dose was calculated on the basis of the depth and frequency of the patient’s breathing. One cm3 of air at a distance of 5 to 10 cm from the cylinder contained 2 million light negative ions. on breathing in 400–500 cm3 of air, the patient received on average 800 million ions; breathing in and out 14–18 times a minute they received 10–15,000 million. The treatment consisted of 25–30 ionizations of 10 minutes each.
To obtain the desired dose of negative ions, patients were always placed at the same distance from the ionizer. They were seated so their breathing was not restricted. during the treatment, they were asked not to alter their normal respiratory pattern.
In order to halt the episodes of bronchial asthma, it was usually necessary to carry out 2–3 courses of treatment (30 ionizations each) with a break of 20–30 days between each. on the basis of observations, the best dosage is 100–150 billion negative ions for each ionization. During each course of treatment, the same quantity of negative ions was always administered to the patient and only in severe cases was the dosage increased to 200 billion per session.
The researchers succeeded in preventing broncho-asthmatic attacks by giving a dose of 300–400 billion per session. Over a period of 30 years, ion therapy has been carried out on more than 3,000 patients with bronchial asthma, of whom 1,100 were men and 1,900 women; 714 men and 1,013 women were in-patients and 386 men and 887 women were out-patients.
A third of the patients were aged between 31 and 40 and a half between 41 and 50. Half had suffered from the disorder for 10 years and a fifth of the patients for five.
On the basis of the known aetiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, we are able to divide this illness in three stages:
- Period of infectious allergy (20% of patients);
- Parallergic period (10% of patients);
- Period of complications (70% of patients);
The first episode of bronchial asthma occurs during a period of infectious allergy due to the existence of an active nucleus of infection in the system.
At this time, the only cause of the attack is, generally, acute inflammation of the respiratory tract. sputum is present in large quantities. There is a subfebrile state with leukocytosis; the leucocytes show a shift to the left; at the same time, one notes eosinophilia with an accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (18–20 mm/hour). (eosinophilia means an elevated eosinophil count in the peripheral blood. eosinophils are white blood cells associated with allergic reactions, among other things.)
Quite often, visible on the X-ray, there are changes taking place in the lungs with an increase in the hilar glands (openings for nerves, blood vessels and secretion ducts), as well as inflammation of the nasal sinuses. Generally, the course of the inflammation decreases in the respiratory system, the attacks of breathlessness stop and remission sets in until the next inflammatory attack. It has been established that this state of infectious allergy can last for months or years.
In the parallergic period, the attacks are caused by an acute infection of the respiratory passages by various substances that the human system gradually becomes sensitised to. These are allergens in the dust and the smoke of kitchens, occupational allergens such as sulphur gas, flour dust, petrol and turpentine fumes, etc. Furthermore, the attacks of breathlessness are caused by effects mediated exclusively through the sense organs, including the influence of the weather. During this period, one can see an increase in erythrocytes and haemoglobin concentration, sometimes a marked leukopenia (decreased white blood cell count) or eosinophilia (at 30%), lymphocytosis, marked neutropenia (an abnormal decrease in neutrophils – a type of white blood cell) and a decreased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
This period can last from several months to 15 years.
The third period, that of the complications, is characterised by chronic bronchitis, chronic pneumonia, adhesive pleurisy, pulmonary emphysema (the pathological accumulation of air or gas in tissues, especially the lungs), chronic maxillary sinusitis (chronic inflammation of the maxillary sinuses), frontal sinusitis (inflammation of the frontal sinus) and other lesions, which sensitise the system and contribute to the asthmatic state. The cardiovascular system is more or less affected, especially the right side of the heart and in the vessels. Morphological changes in the lungs and heart cause difficulty with breathing and clearing the bronchi, followed by cardiac and respiratory insufficiency. Episodes of dyspnoea have various causes that influence the characteristics of asthma. The psychological factor also plays a large part here: the patient is afraid of recurrences. Similarly, the attacks can occur if the parasympathetic part of the nervous system is activated with no apparent cause in the middle of the night for example. The attacks are of a different type, are often of long duration and can bring about a prolonged asthmatic state. In old age, they have signs of cardiac asthma. Patients at this stage are incapable of any physical or mental effort and most often require medical assistance.
In treatment with negative ions, the patients were observed during and after each session and also during and after the whole course of treatment.
At these times, a reduced pulse rate (by 5–20, 12 per minute on average) and a similarly reduced respiratory rate (by 2–8, 5 per minute on average) were noted. In those patients with the highest blood pressure, the drop was 5–10 mm (average: 8 mm of mercury); the lowest pressure was more or less normal in the majority of cases. By listening with a stethoscope, it was possible to detect a reduction of dry and moist rales in the lungs.
The vital capacity of the lungs was increased.
From the first session of negative ionization, there was an improvement in the general state; the patients felt their pectoral spasms disappearing and breathing became deeper. Those patients without complications (chronic vesicular emphysema, myocardial dystrophy (cardiac disorder) with 1st or 2nd-degree cardiac insufficiency) most clearly showed the signs described.
Between the 8th and 15th sessions, in 15% of the patients expectoration was reduced, breathing became difficult and it could be seen that the asthma attacks were sometimes turning into an asthmatic state likely to last a week. at the same time, the patients suffered from insomnia, loss of appetite, and dyspnoea when walking became more intense and breathing superficial and rapid (24–30 per minute). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate increased to 8–25 an hour and the pulse rate quickened (100–140 per minute). The drop in blood pressure was 5–20 mm of mercury (on average 12 mm), and the lowest pressure was unchanged. This condition was noted during the first stage (infectious allergy), during the second (parallergic period) and also during the period of complications. This condition of temporary exacerbation seems highly typical and peculiar to treatment with negative ions. At the conclusion of the treatment, an improvement in the general condition was noted in 90% of the patients; tiredness was reduced in 60% of cases and the nervous state disappeared in 44%; in 58%, the capacity for work increased while improved sleep was noted by 80% of the patients.
During and after the treatment, the pulse and respiratory rate in the majority of patients returned to normal, blood pressure returned to its mean level if it had increased or dropped during the treatment (negative ions also normalise blood pressure).
Towards the 8th–15th sessions, expectoration diminished, as though “moist asthma” had become “dry”.
Towards the 25th–30th sessions, these phenomena were seen in 80–90% of patients. At the same time, the eosinophils, the Curschmann spirals (5–10 mm grey and white mucus structures in the sputum of asthma patients) and the Charcot-Leyden crystals (octahedron-shaped findings in the sputum of patients with bronchial asthma) disappeared from the sputum (or became less easily visible); the appearance of the sputum altered; clear sputum replaced mucopurulent sputum. Lung capacity increased. The quantity of air also increased. Tympanitic resonance on percussion of the lungs was reduced and the extent of the dry and moist rales on exhaling also diminished. Towards the end of the treatment, it could be seen on the X-ray that the hilae were less distinct, that the opacity of the two pulmonary fields had increased and that the diaphragm was more mobile. In patients with chronic pneumonia combined with chronic vesicular emphysema, the X-ray picture of the lungs and heart showed no significant changes.
Towards the end of the treatment, a more or less normal count of red blood cells could be seen in 80% of patients; haemoglobin remained unchanged. Leukocytes, which had increased during the first period of the treatment and were then moderately reduced in the second, became normal again at the end of the treatment in 90% of the patients. In 75% of patients, there was eosinophilia at the end of the treatment. The eosinophil count increased in the first group of patients, while it diminished in those of the second group. The basophil count (they release histamine in response to cells being attacked) remained normal.
In 75% of patients, the number of neutrophils (the most numerous and important innate immunity cells) reached the upper limit of what is considered normal. There was a qualitative reduction in lymphocytes while remaining within normal limits. The monocyte total (white blood cells with phagocytic function) which had reached the upper limit of the normal before treatment tended to go down after treatment.
After the course of treatment, a reduced erythrocyte sedimentation rate was seen in 25% of patients; in 17%, the figure became normal. In the 10% of patients suffering from complications, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate did not return to within the normal limits after treatment. In 75% of patients, the blood sugar (glycaemia) was below normal after the treatment. Glycaemia was noted in the majority of patients of the first group, while the blood sugar in the second group was reduced. The glucose tolerance curve returned to normal in 50% of patients. after the treatment, the skin potential, vascular reactions and the rate of skin resistance and galvanic skin response in 80% of the patients were clearly normal.
After treatment, the following could be established:
- An abatement of the acute stage of bronchial asthma was noted in 55% of patients for a period of 6 months to 10 years.
- In 35% of patients, the attacks became less frequent during the month and definitely less intense and prolonged.
- In 10% of the patients, the treatment did not produce any results.
Dr. V. P. Bourouchina (1955) established, while studying the general reactivity of the system with the help of cantharidin and trypan blue plaster, that after a course of treatment with negative ions, the patients studied were close to normal in 80% of the cases of bronchial asthma.
Dr. T. S. Lavrinovitch (1955) studied the conditioned and unconditioned vascular reflexes in bronchial asthma with the help of plethysmography (an instrument for measuring changes in volume resulting from the inflow of blood) and established that the conditioned vascular reflexes returned to normal first and the unconditioned later.
Dr. Z. B. Ivanova (1960) noted that the functional state of the capillary connective tissues became normal again during treatment. Patients with complications had permanent changes to these structures, which did not return to normal after this treatment.
The observations of J. I. Rodsolaillnen (1964) showed that after 25–30 sessions of negative ions, the increased stimulation of the higher sections of the nervous system disappeared and it was mainly the inhibitor processes that played a part in inducing sleepiness in the patients. Towards the end of the treatment, in most patients (80%), the stimulant and inhibitor processes returned to their normal state in the higher sections of the central nervous system.
In examining the results of treating the different groups of patients, it was established that the asthma attacks had disappeared within six months:
- in 52% of patients suffering from an infectious allergy (1st period);
- in 49% of patients in the parallergic period (2nd period);
- in 39% of patients suffering from complications (3rd period).
The treatment had little effect:
- in 8% of patients during the period of infectious allergy;
- in 4% of patients during the parallergic period;
- in 14% of patients during the complications period.
The results obtained were recorded in 830 patients. In 470 patients, attacks of bronchial asthma ceased during a period of:
- 6 months to 1 year in 165 patients;
- 1 to 2 years in 173 patients;
- 2 to 5 years in 74 patients;
- 5 to 10 years in 58 patients.
In 360 patients, the attacks occurred again in the 2–3 months following treatment.
In the period of complications, the treatment was less effective, as 97% of the patients were suffering from chronic bronchitis, chronic pneumonia, marked vesicular pulmonary emphysema or showed cardiac changes caused by the existence of a centre of infection, by the asthmatic condition or by frequent attacks of bronchial asthma. a number of patients had arteriosclerotic and hypertensive cardiosclerosis.
At the end of these long and exacting studies, attention needs to be drawn to the treatment of bronchial asthma with negative ions, which permits in-depth studies on this subject.
- There is evidence that negative ions have a certain physiological and therapeutic action without any side effects on the system of the patient with bronchial asthma.
- Treatment with negative ions leads to an improvement in the general state of the patients, a normalisation of the blood picture, of the vascular and respiratory reactions, etc.
- Each course of treatment must consist of 25–30 sessions. To obtain stable and lasting results, there should be 2 or 3 courses spaced 20–30 days apart.
- Results of treatment:
- dyspnoeic attacks disappear in 55% of patients within 6 months;
- the intensity and number of attacks is reduced in 35% of patients;
- treatment is ineffective in 10% of cases.
- Negative ions normalise the functional state of the central nervous system and, in all cases, the system of the patients with bronchial asthma.
- Great importance is attached to this study with the aim of seeing this treatment carried out widely in polyclinics and therapeutic units.
The sensitisation of the system and the pathological stimulation of the respiratory interoceptors can cause a state of prolonged stimulation – initial parabiotic arousal of the centres, thus creating the main pathological factor of bronchial asthma. Our knowledge of bronchial asthma as an allergic condition with this main pathological cause agrees with the experimental work on allergies by dr. a. d. ado et al., which shows that the major part in the allergy is due to the sensitisation of the system via the intermediary of the central system.
The work of doctors N. S. Zvonitsky and A. N. Obrosov (1932), who obtained aeroions with the help of an electrostatic machine, is important in the treatment of patients in Russia who have contracted bronchial asthma.
The later doctors J. E. Landsman (1934), E. I. Pasinkov (1934) et al. also used this method of obtaining negatively charged aeroions.
Doctors B. M. Prosarovsky in 1934 and F. E. Obrant in 1937 treated bronchial asthma with aeroions obtained using The Steffens method.
In the beginning, the focus was on short-term ionization therapy, since it produced immediately observable positive effects in certain diseases, for instance, hay fever. However, the symptoms recurred when the ionising device was no longer used. subsequent trials showed that regular exposure to ionised air over a longer period not only produces long-term improvements but also cures all the symptoms in most instances.
Prof. Sulman in Israel and Prof. Krueger in the U.S. primarily focused on research into the bodily processes that are targeted by ionization therapy. They discovered that negative ions have the following effects:
- increased vital abilities (volume of inhaled air);
- improved eyelid activity;
- decreased heart rate and blood pressure;
- blood histamine levels, which are excessive in the case of an allergy, are reduced;
- the electrical potentials associated with the central nervous system and body cells become normalised;
- endocrine gland function becomes normalised;
- in the tissues, an excess of positive ions causes the release of serotonin, a powerful neurohormone with various harmful effects.
Professors Krueger and Sulman have proven that negatively ionised air reduces harmful effects. Laboratory tests have shown that after 10 minutes of positive ionization, the level of serotonin increased in the blood (by 40%), in the plasma (by 90%), in the erythrocytes (by 50%) and in the platelets (by 24%). In contrast, after 10 minutes of negative ionization, the level of serotonin in the blood decreased by 30%, in the plasma by 42.5%, in the erythrocytes by 41.7% and in the platelets by 72.3%.
The procedure for asthma is the same as for bronchitis. In small children, negative ionization can eliminate the symptoms within one week, but in people who have had the condition for a long time, five to six months are needed, though the effect is often permanent. In a U.S. study, patients aged over 80 were cured using ionization therapy after suffering for 30 or more years.
The study conducted by dr. Alen Mortlock from the University of Canberra, Australia, has demonstrated that the negative ions in the atmosphere have a beneficial effect on the treatment of asthmatics. Using scientific methods, it was proven that a marked improvement in breathing was achieved in more than one-third of the cases. They found that people suffering from rhinitis (hay fever) all year long no longer have a stuffy nose after spending 10 minutes near an ionizer. Patients with severe symptoms require nightly treatments for approximately three months. In these instances, it is advised to place the ionizer next to the bed starting in November in order to prevent the onset of symptoms in May. Some patients have even noticed that their symptoms regressed in a more advanced age. Having an ionizer is essential as a means of preventing excessive histamine production. Once the amount of histamine in the bloodstream is under control, the symptoms no longer appear.
In a series of extremely important experiments, dr. Kornblueh noted as early as in the 1950s that it is possible to achieve a major improvement in the treatment of these diseases using daily 45-minute therapeutic doses of negative ions.
In the U.s., dr. a. P. Wehner developed the so-called aerosol electrotherapy (aeT), which can be used to successfully treat a number of respiratory disorders. These studies and their results are described separately in the subsequent chapters.
Prof. Paul Bechgaard from the Aarhus Country Hospital and Prof. P. Bennevie from the University of Copenhagen used aeT on nearly a thousand people with hay fever and asthma and achieved positive results in all instances. In any case, certain assumptions have to be taken into account in order to achieve reliable results. The treatments took about 30 to 45 minutes, once or twice daily. during inhalation through a half-open mouth, at a distance of about 10 to 30 cm, the negative ions emitted by the ionizer penetrate deeply into the cells where they can exert their catalytic influence. In dry weather, the static charge of the body resulting from the friction of synthetic fabrics can be eliminated by taking a shower or using soap. The magnetic field around the body repulses ions in much the same way as the like poles of two magnets react when placed next to each other. Clothing made from cotton is recommended for treatment. The patient generally feels immediate relief, though this can disappear as the day goes by if there is a hot wind (Föhn) blowing or if clothing made from synthetic fibres is worn. In most instances, having the ionizer working on the nightstand while sleeping helps immensely in terms of facilitating deep and restful sleep. Bear in mind though that the friction between synthetic fibres can generate a potential so high that negative ions are unable to reach the body, which means that your sleepwear should also be made from cotton. According to a work report produced by danish scientists: “We believe that the results from the available studies conducted to date demonstrate that the impact of negative ions is vital for human health.”
Continuous treatment using an ionizer on the nightstand next to the bed is also recommended for bronchitis. Treatment can take several months, after which the symptoms disappear and never appear again in most cases (cf. Prof. Boulatov’s report).
Children, in general, respond surprisingly fast to an ionised atmosphere. There are many reports of colds and bronchitis in children be- ing cured after just one night’s sleep near an ionizer. The response is slower in older people, but there are cases where the condition was treated after just one or two nights next to an ionizer.
The impact of negative ions on high blood pressure was studied by the scientists Dessauer, Edstrom and Wilhelm. If the patients were exposed to negative ions, Edstrom recorded a decrease in blood pressure in 75% of cases. The maximum in abnormally high blood pressures was 45 mm Hg. In patients suffering from extremely high blood pressure, a decrease was identified in 15% to 40% of cases. Sienholz detected a reduction in blood pressure from 160 to 130 and from 210 to 180 when the patients were exposed to negative ions multiple times. our company, IONEX, has similar references. The doctor of the patient whose blood pressure decreased dramatically after she started using an ionizer visited the company’s offices to inquire about the effects of negative ions and purchased an ionizer for use in his outpatient clinic and at home. all in all, negative ions regulate internal organ functioning and even improve the condition of people with low blood pressure.
Dr. Varga from the Heidelberg University has published numerous reports pointing out the favourable effects of negative ions on the body, claiming that they facilitate lung gas exchange and thereby boost the absorption of oxygen in the blood. This makes the heart function more economically and beat more slowly under stress and also normalises blood pressure.
In 1961, dr. Worden found that cardiac cells in a cell culture stopped growing under the influence of positive ions, while the cell culture developed normally in the presence of negative ions.
In 1966, dr. Palti discovered that in large quantities, positive ions cause bronchial spasms in children, while negative ions alleviate them.
During tests on animals conducted in 1959, dr. a. Krueger and dr. r. smith found that peristaltic airway movements, which are responsible for airway clearing, decreased significantly in the presence of positive ions and increased in the presence of negative ions. The normal rate of 900 per minute drops to 600 per minute under the influence of positive ions and rises to 1000 per minute in the presence of negative ions.
In 1951, dr. a. Wahner used a therapy that combined aerosol and negative ions to treat one thousand patients suffering from respiratory problems. Of the people suffering from bronchial asthma, bronchitis of various origins, pulmonary emphysema, laryngitis, nasal inflammation and pharyngitis, 30% were cured, 42.3% saw a significant regression of the disease and an improvement in their condition, 20% saw a partial improvement and 7.4% saw no changes. All were suffering from chronic conditions.
In 1966, a group of scientists conducted a series of negative ion experiments on children aged 10 to 12 months. They found that asthma and asthma attacks were cured faster than with conventional medication, including antibiotics. The number of recurrences was also lower.
Doctors Windsor and Beckett (U.s.) exposed 16 volunteers to high concentrations of positive ions. Within 20 minutes, they were suffering from dry cough, hoarseness, headache, itching and nasal congestion. They also found a 30% reduction in their lung capacity. Their lung capacity returned to normal after a single 10-minute exposure to negative ions.
Prof. F. G. Sulman, Bioclimatology Unit, Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical Centre, Israel, 1981
Prof. Sulman investigated the role of serotonin in women who have had multiple interrupted pregnancies. Following initial experiments on rats, he discovered that pregnancies were terminated if the rats were given a serotonin injection. All of the 20 women who filed an application for the induction of legal abortion and consented to be injected with drugs causing increased serotonin production had an abortion. Having seen that the neurohormone can cause an abortion, Prof. Sulman developed the theory that serotonin could be what is causing miscarriages in women who wanted to have children. The stress from having difficulty conceiving is enough to cause the over-production of serotonin in the body, which leads to a miscarriage.
At the same time, he observed that positive ions boosted serotonin production. In the period from 1950 to 1960, he treated over 100 women who have had multiple miscarriages using medication that blocks or prevents the natural serotonin production process. It worked – nearly all of the women who had previously tried and failed to become mothers gave birth to healthy babies.
The following findings were confirmed:
Serotonin, histamine and SRS-A (the slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis, a substance that produces a slowly progressive and sustained contraction of certain smooth muscles and has a significant impact on the contraction of the airways in asthma) are autacoids (ubiquitous irritant hormones).
Serotonin is released due to the air’s electric charge and histamine due to allergenic substances, while SRS-A causes asthma.
Serotonin is a vasoconstrictor (a substance that makes the blood vessels narrower) and can alter the capillary endothelium and allow the lymph fluid to discharge into tissues. This means that the allergic reaction it causes is the result of the positive ions in the air.
Serotonin causes the aggregation of the blood platelets, leading to thromboembolism (the obstruction of a pulmonary blood vessel by a blood clot – thrombus). This can be prevented using negative ions.
All the smooth muscles, intestines, the uterus and the urethra contract under the influence of serotonin. This is why it can induce an (ordinary) abortion. It can also cause hyperventilation (breathing too rapidly and/or too deeply) and gasping for air, pressure in the chest, coughs, tingling and stinging skin, nausea, vomiting and intestinal cramps.
It is an essential neurotransmitter that regulates the rhythm of the epiphysis and thus the secretion of hormones in the body and is a major factor in the functioning of the hallucinogenic drug Lsd.
It is the primary reason for migraine attacks and other pain reactions. It is responsible for stress reactions and the nervous tension that leads to insomnia, irritability, tension, swelling (oedema), heart palpitations, heart pain, dyspnoea (shortness of breath), spastic bronchitis or asthma, flushing with chills or sweating, hay fever, snoring, conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva), vertigo, shaking, rheumatic pains, painful scars, hyperperistalsis (excessive intestinal activity) and pollakiuria (excessive excretion of urine).
- E. Tal, Y. Pfeifer and F. G. Sulman, Bioclimatology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Hebrew University, Israel, 17 December 1975
The effect of negative and positive air ionization on blood serotonin was studied in vitro (in a controlled environment). The experiments showed that within 10 minutes, positive ionization increased the serotonin levels in the total blood (+40%), the plasma (+90%), the erythrocytes (+50%) and the thrombocytes (+240%). on the other hand, negative ionization (10 min) reduced the serotonin content of the total blood (−30%), the plasma (−42.5%), the erythrocytes (−41.7%) and the thrombocytes (−72.3%), thus confirming the “Krueger effect” in vitro.
About the Krueger Effect: Prof. Albert Paul Krueger discovered in 1972 that, in contrast to negative air ionization, positively ionised air causes highly adverse reactions resulting from the release of serotonin, for example, insomnia, irritability, tension, swelling (oedema), heart palpitations, heart pain, dyspnoea (shortness of breath), etc.
In 1960, Prof. Albert Paul Krueger, the Head Pathologist and Microbiologist at the University of California at Berkeley, publicly revealed another surprising fact about negative ions, namely their impact on the secretion of the neurohormone serotonin.
Despite the lack of studies dealing with this field, there is still a considerable body of experimental data available and it is perhaps most relevant because it bridges the gap between pure laboratory observation and the possible role of ions in the natural environment.
Serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT is a very powerful and versatile neurohormone. For example, it is capable of inducing profound neurovascular, endocrinal and metabolic effects throughout the body. It is involved in the transmission of nervous impulses. It occurs in considerable quantities in the lower midbrain – where it plays important roles in such basic patterns of life like sleep and our evaluation of mood. It has the further advantage of being subject to assay in microgram amounts using a sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method. In 1959, researchers found through direct measurement that negative air ions reduce the amount of free 5-HT normally present in the trachea of mice and rabbits. When they exposed guinea pigs to negative ions and collected all the urine, they observed a considerable increase in the amount of 5-hydroxy-indole-acetic acid, an inactive end product of the oxidation of 5-HT. The data suggested that negative ions reduced the tissue level of 5-HT by accelerating the enzymatic oxidation process. The mechanism of their action is consistent with the previously obtained data indicating that negative ions can affect the oxidation reactions in tissues. This proves the ability of negative ions to accelerate the aerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons in the Krebs cycle that produces the lion’s share of energy for all cells that use oxygen to breathe (the Krebs cycle is a sequence of chemical reactions that occur in living cells that use oxygen as part of the cellular metabolism).
Other effects of negative ions include:
Negative ions reduce an anxiety effect on mice and rats exposed to stressful situations. The effect parallels the administration to animals or humans of reserpine and other methods for treating hypertension. Reserpine and negative ions have in common the ability to reduce the amount of serotonin in the brain and apparently that accounts for this tranquilising effect.
The reduction in the brain serotonin level was also demonstrated in other experiments. However, the previously mentioned laboratory evidence is also supported by evidence from nature. In 1901, Czermak observed that some weather fronts, e.g. the Föhn, share common characteristics such as the occurrence of abnormally high positive ion concentrations. Researchers believed that this could be the cause of disease in weather-sensitive people. In the Middle east for instance, the weather phenomenon known as the Sharav causes a characteristic sudden rise in temperature, a drop in humidity and the accompanying winds. Some 30% of the population exposed to this phenomenon suffers from illnesses as a result. It was found that weather-sensitive people start to feel ill when the overall balance of ions tips in favour of positive ions. This happens between 24 and 48 hours prior to any other change in environmental parameters, such as wind speed and direction, solar radiation, temperature and humidity. Disease symptoms include migraine, nausea, vomiting, amblyopia (impaired vision in one or both eyes), irritability, hyperperistalsis, swelling, conjunctivitis, excess blood (congestion) in the respiratory tract, etc.
Treatment involves inhaling negative ion-enriched air or medications – serotonin antagonists. The basic conditions for serotonin Irritation syndrome are clearly caused by an imbalance of ions, though the hot, dry wind plays a major role in the subsequent course of the disease and its longer duration. In addition to the Föhn and the Sharav, winds like these have a bad reputation elsewhere in the world. There is evidence that positive and negative ions can enter the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. In children and adults, high concentrations of positive ions cause nasal and oesophageal congestion, even bronchial congestion in prolonged cases.
Paavo Mäkelä, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Juhani ojajärvi, department of Public Health Sciences, University of Helsinki, Gunnar Graeffe and Matti Lehtimäki, department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, 1 august 1978
The effect of the ionization of the air on the decay of bacterial aerosols was studied in a Burns and Plastic surgery Unit. The bacteria content of air measured using settle plates was found to be smaller during the ionization period than during the control period. The number of individual phages typed Staphylococcus Aureus strains was especially found to be lower during ionization. The opposite potential increased the disappearance of bacteria from the air. The results obtained show that ionization may have applications in controlling the airborne infection.
Prof. Tchijewsky and other researchers have discovered that wounds heal faster when treated in an atmosphere with artificial negative ionization.
In Philadelphia, Prof. Kornblueh and his medical team carried out an experiment in 1958–1959 on 198 patients with severe burns. The patients were treated using high doses of negative ions, with surprising results: 57% of patients felt significantly less pain during and after treatment. In comparison, this effect was achieved in only 22.5% of patients treated with conventional medication. These important results indicate that it is possible to achieve relief using natural means when the body is suffering from stress caused by medications.
All that is needed is to place an air ionizer on the nightstand and to let negative ions help with healing. With few exceptions, painkillers were not necessary. In most cases, the pain subsided within the first 10 to 15 minutes and the number of infections decreased dramatically.
Somewhat less scientific, though rather more interesting evidence in support of using negative ion therapy for burns comes from England. Clare Maxwell Hudson, an attractive TV show host, spilt boiling water on her stomach when making tea one morning, resulting in second-degree burns. news of her misfortune was published in tabloids. However, she was able to put the public at ease within a matter of months. she stated that she used an ionizer she had purchased for treating her mild asthma. Holding the ionizer over the burned area three times a day made her pain go away within a few days and the burn started to heal. The unsightly scarring was gone within a couple of weeks. “I was absolutely thrilled,” she said. “I thought I would never be able to wear a two-piece swimsuit again.”
All sources of studies from 20th century are mentioned in book Negative ions as a method of healing – Evidence by Scientific Institutes Worldwide by Lorena Leonardos – please see the separate PDF attachment.
Book ‘Negative ions as a method of healing’ by Lorena Leonardos – pdf
Pdf study by Sharp